medication administration record (MAR)  computer record of thepatient’s medications, including dosage, dosage form, androute and time of administration. Remember that a prescription is a legal document that could appear in a court case. • Discriminate between the various root words, prefixes, and suffixes that are used to create the medical terminology that pharmacy technicians may be exposed to in their practice of pharmacy. Abbreviations are actually medical shorthand that is used to write clear and concise orders that will be used among health care professionals. Figure 6-1 provides short descriptions of the parts of a prescription. This order is to be signed by the prescriber at a later date. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. These steps include: Identify the required elements of a prescription. Examples of prescription directions to the pharmacist: c.M. 2011/9/30 1 Interpretation of the Prescription or Medication Order 處方或給藥方案解釋 Prescription is an order for medication issued by a physician, dentist, or other properly licensed medical practitioner. Some of the typed or computer-generated abbreviations, prescription symbols, and dose designations can still be confusing and lead to mistakes in drug dosing or timing. In addition, when these abbreviations are unclear, extra time must be spent by pharmacists or other healthcare providers trying to clarify their meanings, which can delay much-needed treatments. The inscription, which specifies the name of the medication, its strength, and quantity of drug to be dispensed, appears on line D. If the medication must be compounded or prepared, the ingredients would appear in this location. Use the questions you prepared before you went to the office to understand more about your prescription. Preparation of Prescription Medications. This system is also described in Chapter 2. Only standard abbreviations should be used. Some institutions require these orders to be countersigned by designated personnel. This clarification will require further communication with the person prescribing the drug. Parts of a Prescription. As a pharmacy technician, you must be sure that you stay current with new medications and new indications for older medications. The dosage given should be in the appropriate dosage form. (See the Council's Recommendations to Reduce Medication Errors Associated with Verbal Medication Orders and Prescriptions) Prescription orders should include a brief notation of purpose (e.g., for cough), unless considered inappropriate by the prescriber. have been misread as i. A prescription is used in an outpatient or an ambulatory setting, while a medication order is used in a hospital setting. a.m.Instill two (2) drops in the right eye every day in the morning. If q.d. Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or device for a patient. et h.s.Take one (1) capsule four (4) times a day after each meal and at bedtime. Examples of prescriptions not requiring compounding: Examples of prescriptions requiring compounding: The quantities of ingredients to be used almost always are expressed in the metric system. The fill process requires a check and balance system and various preparations. The information generally found on a completed prescription is shown in Figure 3.1. Buy Membership for Basic Science Category to continue reading. When you visit your doctor, if you are not exactly sure how to read the prescription you are given, you can ask them to explain their instructions for the medication before you leave the office. The word “prescription”, from “pre-” (“before”) and “script” (“writing, written”), refers to the fact that the prescription is an order that must be written down before a compound drug can be prepared. This information is sometimes necessary for calculating the appropriate medication dosage. If a question about the prescription or medication error is noted, clarification or corrections must occur before the medication is dispensed. Interpretation Of the Prescription or Medication order Abbreviations commonly used in prescriptions and Medication orders Abbreviation Meaning a.c before meals ad up to ad lib. The gm can be misread as gr (grain). parts labeled are as follows: Examples include transdermal, ocular, and intrauterine systems. The pharmacist is ultimately responsible for dispensing the medication as ordered. If an order should be questioned in any way, the pharmacy technician should bring this to the attention of the pharmacist. ii o.d. The pharmacist is ultimately responsible for dispensing the medication as ordered. The correct interpretation of these abbreviations and prescription notations plays an important part in pharmaceutical calculations and thus in the accurate filling and dispensing of medication. The physician’s signature appears on line G, and the number of allowed refills on Line H. Finally, if the prescription is for a controlled medication, the physician must place his or her U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) number either under or beside the signature. figure 1 components of a typical prescription. shall . Prescription and medication orders 2.1 intrODuCtiOn anD DeFinitiOnS P rescriptions and medication orders are the primary means by which prescribers communicate with pharmacists regarding the desired treatment regimen for a patient. record on the prescription drug order, the name of the person who transmitted the order in addition to all the requirements of a prescription. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Examples of prescriptions written in the metric system: The portions of the prescription presenting directions to the pharmacist (the subscription) and the directions to the patient (the signa) commonly contain abbreviated forms of English or Latin terms as well as Arabic and Roman numerals. The legal document that doctors must fill out when prescribing a drug, or more than one drug, is called a prescription (community) or, in the case of hospitals, it’s referred to as a medication order. They may be electronically submitted to the pharmacy for dispensing. The medication order entry process involves reviewing a prescription and entering it into a computer. prescription drug definition: 1. a drug that can only be bought if a doctor orders it for you 2. a drug that can only be bought…. The use of a controlled vocabulary, a reduction in the use of abbreviations, care in the writing of decimal points, and the proper use of leading and terminal zeros have been urged to help reduce medication errors1–3 (Table 3.2). Review and interpretation (translation) of the prescription. Also, co-pays depend on your insurance plan, so make sure to consider your insurance coverage when deciding between traditional or mail-order prescriptions. c.tab. medication administration record (MAR)  A computer record of the patient’s medications, including dosage, dosage form, and route and time of administration. For orders to be correctly written and interpreted, the health care professional and the person dispensing the medication must understand the meaning of each abbreviation used. • interpretation of prescription and medication orders a prescription is an order for medication issued by a physician or dentist. xxivMix and make capsules. Preparation of Prescription Medications. Just as a reminder, because many drugs have similar-sounding or look-alike names, reading the prescription can become much like working a puzzle. In the use of the metric system, the decimal point may be replaced by a vertical line that is imprinted on the prescription blank or hand-drawn by the prescriber. Prescriptions and medication orders written for infants, children, and sometimes the elderly may also include the age, weight, and/or body surface area (BSA) of the patient (described in Chapter 7). A prescription contains handwritten instructions for the dispensing and administering of medications.It can be more than an order for drugs, as it can also include instructions for a therapist, the patient, nurse, caretaker, pharmacist or a lab technician for orders for lab tests, X-rays, and other assessments. In those instances, “local” or nonstandard abbreviations might become an area of concern for possible misinterpretation. Prescriptions written by veterinarians generally include the animal species and/or pet’s name and the name of the owner. prescription An order for medication issued by a licensed prescriber, a physician, dentist, or veterinarian, for example, designating specific medication, dose, and dose rate to be prepared by a pharmacist and dispensed to the patient. Periods in the abbreviations q.d., q.o.d., and q.i.d. As you work through prescriptions, an understood meaning is that if a tablet or capsule is ordered, the route of administration is by mouth (po) unless otherwise indicated. In those instances, “local” or nonstandard abbreviations might become an area of concern for possible misinterpretation. FIGURE 1 Components of a typical prescription. The five major components are the superscription, inscription, signa (Sig), subscription and signature of the health care professional. Prescriptions may be written or verbal (except with Schedule II medications, which require a written signed prescription), but the legal implications are the same for both. i q.i.d. Prescriptions are used in the outpatient, or ambulatory, setting, whereas medication orders Even if the order is a verbal order to a health care professional, the order must be transcribed into writing to create a medication record for legal purposes. This mistake can be avoided by familiarity with medications commonly expressed in grains. The pharmacy provider . A list of abbreviations commonly used in prescriptions and medication orders is presented in Table 3.1. Review Set 3.1: Prescription Abbreviations. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Prescriptions have five main sections: tablet  Solid dosage form containing one or more medicinal substances. figure 1 components of a typical prescription. Physicians Orders and Transcribing Packet DSP should complete the worksheet at the end of the packet after reviewing: • “Transcribing Medication Sheets” • “Monthly medication Sheet for Dave Doe” • “How to determine what time to administer medication” There must be a written physicians order for all prescription and non-prescription A typical medication order sheet, which includes the full name of the patient, the date and time the order was written, the name and dose of drug, the route of administration, and the time or frequency of dosing, is shown in Figure 3.3. Recognize the influence of early Greek and Roman healthcare practitioners on current medical terminology and abbreviations. ______________________________________________________________________________________. This book rather addresses only those that are relevant to pharmaceutical calculations. water 2 When the orders are given verbally, the order should always be repeated with the health care professional to verify the drug, the amount, and the directions to avoid errors. Interpret the following prescriptions on the line provided. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Your prescription is filled by the mail-order pharmacy, run through insurance, and the medication is mailed directly to you. • Recall the meaning of the various medical and pharmacy abbreviations that may appear on a patient’s prescription,medication order, or patient profile. Historically, poor penmanship and lack of standardization was the root cause of many of the prescription errors. In hospitals and other institutions, the forms are somewhat different and are referred to as medication orders. Most tablets also contain other pharmaceutical ingredients, such as diluents, disintegrants, colorants, binders, solubilizers, and coatings. With medication transcriptions, the transcriber must follow certain rules to ensure accuracy and compliance. no. In addition, blank spaces are used by the prescriber to provide information about the patient, the medication desired, and the directions for use. • Interpret prescriptions and medication orders, • Interpret labels found on medication containers, • Use and understand units of measurement found in pharmacology, Label added to prescriptions to provide supplementary instructions, Agent that dilutes a substance; in pharmacology, liquid added to a powder or crystals to change solid to a liquid or to dilute another liquid, Official nonproprietary name approved for a drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Part of prescription indicating name of drug, quantity, and dosage prescribed, Written or verbal direction for administration of medication in a health care setting, Unique number on a drug product label that identifies the manufacturer, product, and size of container, Processing of drugs and movement of drugs through the body; describing characteristics such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, Effects of drugs in treatment of conditions and diseases in the body, Written order by a licensed health care professional for dispensing or administering medications, Capsule filled with medication in powdered form, Process of adding diluent (fluid), such as water or saline, to a powdered or crystallized form of a drug, making a specific liquid dosage strength, Classification of medications with potential for abuse and misuse, Part of prescription indicating how a medication is to be taken or applied, Part of prescription designated with the symbol, Study of adverse toxic reactions or toxic levels of chemicals and drugs, Proprietary name given to a medication by the manufacturer. 1 q. Line A of Figure 6-1 is the preprinted name of the physician or group of physicians, the address, and phone number. It is extremely important that the pharmacy technician know not only the laws pertaining to these situations, but also the policy and procedure of the institution or health care facility. You should always remember that the highest level of patient safety is the most important aspect of dispensing medications. As a pharmacy technician, you must be sure that you stay current with new medications and new, Remember the knowledge of pharmacy includes the action of the medication in the body or, Abbreviations are often used in the writing of prescriptions. 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