Surely this list can be expanded to include other Commelina species such as C. diffusa which is definitely a problematic weed in the cropping systems in the Windward Islands. PDF | Weeds are major competitors of rice growing in the farming land. Prodiamine has been reported to be effective in ornamental fern beds [62]. Commelina elegans has shown resistance to growth – regulator type herbicides [32]. Mulching with rice straw, cut bush, grass, coffee hulls, water hyacinth or even the dead or senescent banana leaves, pruned suckers and old stems could significantly suppress weed growth. 1. Animals may also spread the seeds. Volume 3 Part 1. (Family: Commelinaceae) is usually known as “climbing dayflower or spreading dayflower” in Bangladesh. Control using herbicides is, however, variable depending on the herbicide, accuracy of leaf coverage and environmental conditions [7]. Commelina communis has become one of the three most troublesome weeds in soybean fields in the Northeast China, and has caused significant reduction in production and quality of soybean [42]. Pritchard GH, 1971. Cafe Cacao The, 21(1):41-46. It easily roots at the nodes and reproduces vegetatively and by seeds. Origen y distribución 3. Treatments significantly shifted the species composition away from Commelina diffusa to annual weed species such as Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. The research direction should also: Determine threshold levels of C. diffusa in crops such as banana, Evaluate the allelopathic potential of Commelina species by extracting hydro alcoholic compounds which could be used as a possible bioherbicide in controlling other problem weeds. Recent studies on use of residual herbicides have identified Dual Magnum® (s-metolachlor) (applied as a preplant incorporated, pre-emergent and post-emergent) as providing excellent residual control (>80%) of C. benghalensis in peanut [54]. Commelina benghalensis was reported as a weed of jute (Corchorus olitorius), sisal (Agave sisalana), beans (Phaseolus spp. Commelina diffusa occurs as a weed in 17 crops in 26 countries and Murdannia nudiflora occurs as a weed in 16 crops in 23 countries [27]. As for C. communis, mesotrione and thifensulfuron-methyl provide complete control (100%); metribuzin, paraquat, carfentrazone-ethyl, 2,4-D butylate, nicosulfuron, MCPA-sodium, fluroxypyr, flumioxazin and acifluorfen are herbicides with excellent activity (90.0 - 100% control); rimsulfuron, lactofen and fomesafen are herbicides with good activity (80.0 - 90.0% control); and glyphosate-isopropylammonium, bensulfuron-methyl, fluoroglycofen-ethyl, bentazone, clomazone, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, isoproturon and dicamba are relatively ineffective (< 80.0% control) at their own recommended dose, respectively. (Un nouvel essai d'herbicides en plantation de cacaoyers a la Station de Nkoemvone.). Referencias . Glufosinate (240 g a.i./ha) and fomasefen (WIP 276 g a.i./ha) were used in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in Fairtrade banana fields to compare their efficacy in controlling C. diffusa [30]. Harare, Zimbabwe: Agricultural Research Trust. One reasonably effective thing to do is to pull the plants out by hand. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. by Hutchinson, J. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. It readily roots at the nodes when they come into contact with the soil. Weed management strategies that are narrowly focused will ultimately cause shifts in weed populations to species that no longer respond to the strategy resulting in adapted species, tolerant species or herbicide-resistant biotypes [51], which is the case with Commelina species in cropping systems. Distribution and biology. London, UK: Crown Agents. [3rd Conference of the Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. Paviot J, 1977. 1. The initial control of C. diffusa with glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl was improved when associated with the adjuvant, mainly for AI11002 and TT11002 nozzles.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a qualidade da tecnologia de aplicação da mistura em tanque de glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl no controle de Commelina diffusa. The weed appears to be well-suited for high input agricultural production where high levels of fertilizers, irrigation and herbicides are used [79, 80]. Recent data indicates that the Commelinaceae family contains 23 genera and at least 225 species native to or naturalized in the New World and 23 genera and about 200 species in the Neotropics [41] and also website reports of 50 genera and 700 species [16, 31]. After removing the plastic any regrowth can be dug out or sprayed, however, this method will not be effective in full shade. Studies on the critical periods of interference in Commelina species are limited. Weed control in upland farming of Japan. Weed control in maize in the Torluca Valley, Mexico. The southern root-knot nematode is widely distributed across cotton regions in Georgia [54]. Hand weeding and rolling the weed up like a carpet is considered suitable for removal of small infestations [30], if care is taken to remove every last piece. Resistance to residual herbicides has also been reported and relatively high doses of simazine and diuron appear to be necessary to achieve control [32]. Basel, Switzerland: Ciba Geigy Ltd. Daniel JW, 1974. 22-50. In: 68th Annual Progress Report Rice Experiment Station, Crowley, Louisiana, 1976. Black plastic mulch also provides good weed control as it stifles weed seed growth and development when light penetration is reduced. Proceedings 27th Annual Meeting Southern Weed Science Society., 125. Plant Disease Reporter, 49(7):583-585. Effects of bromacil on annual variations of weed species and population. Malaysia: 11 pp. A multi-component approach including an effective herbicide for successful management has been suggested [80-82]. Burnout® (concentrated vinegar and acetic acid) (20%), urea (20%), and fertilizer solution (20%) were also used to evaluate their efficacy on the control of Commelina species and other weed species. Watanabe Y; Hirokawa F, 1975. This was followed by urea (41%), fertilizer solution (34%) and corn weed blocker (20%). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96. Herbicide evaluation in wheat in Guatemala. Available from: Pests and diseases associated with commelina species, Department of Food Production, Faculty of Food and Agriculture, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, Institute of Plant Protection, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China. It can be bagged and well baked in the sun, however, follow – up work is essential as any small fragment of the stem remaining will regrow and needs to be removed and destroyed off - site. and C. benghalensis L. as well as their biotypes, are perennial herbs of Neotropical origin which now have a pantropical distribution. Weed control in the forest nursery with CFNP (MO-500). Commelina benghalensis (Tropical spiderwort or Benghal dayflower) has become increasingly important, gaining pest significance in agronomic production systems in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States of America (USA) in crops such as cotton (Gossypium spp.) CABI is a registered EU trademark. Try to do this when the soil is moist and workable – if the soil is hard, the stems will simply break off from the roots and make room for new growth. Commelina cyanea is a trailing herbaceous perennial plant, whose stems grow along the ground. They are both annuals and perennials and therefore dominate the fallow vegetation because they are most competitive due to their growth and regeneration characteristics [72]. This study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Commelina diffusa. Research has shown that soil solarization, a hydrothermal process of heating moist soil, can successfully disinfect soil pests and control weeds [1, 4, 15, 56]. Takahashi K; Sakai Y; Harada Y; Hirose K, 1977. Plants should not be under moisture stress when sprayed. Off print Download the full paper Field studies conducted in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in 2003/2004 compared several treatments including 3 cover crops in suppressing Commelina diffusa weed infestations in banana at 63 days after application (DAA) [30]. Ecological studies on the germination and emergence of annual weeds. East African Weeds and their Control. However, C. diffusa has been reported to have larger possibilities of recovery after glyphosate application because of its larger starch reservation [71]. by F.N. Jacks and Holw (Uredinales: Phakopsoraceae), Septoria commelinae Canonaco (Coelomycete), Uromyces commelinae Cooke (Uredinales: Pucciniaceae), Phoma herbarum [14, 23, 76]. Weed Research, Japan, 19:20-24. Manabe T; Ishii K, 1972. It was stressed that the application of herbicides with soil residual activity will be crucial for the management of C. benghalensis [80]. Hairy Commelina hails from Africa and Asia and is a notable environmental weed smothering the ground layer in waterways, disturbed bushlands and crops in Australia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. This species which was first observed in USA in 1928 [18] gained noxious weed status in 1983 [81]. Monocot Weeds 3. Commelina diffusa Burm.f. unpublished data 2005) using three cutting types: tip cuttings (2 nodes, 2 leaves), 2 node pieces only and 1 node, 1 leaf piece buried at depths including 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.0 cm to demonstrate emergence patterns. Commelina diffusa is very difficult to control manually as the stolons are cut into small pieces which can easily regenerate. In the Windward Islands, farmers started using paraquat around 1989 and noticed that it was ineffective. This method depends on the crop infested, land size, level of technology available, value of crop, labour availability and costs, availability of draft power and the associated equipment and availability of herbicides [47]. All treatments showed varying levels of control for up to 3 weeks. Surfactants will improve penetration into the waxy-coated leaves. Commelina diffusa Burm. Der Gattungsname Commelina wurde 1753 durch Carl von Linné in Sp… In the USA, its sudden emergence as a noxious weed is attributed to crop production practices which are well suited for prolific weed growth such as minimum – tillage production (which is undertaken in conjunction with the use of glyphosate – resistant crops) and extreme tolerance to glyphosate [79-81]. Spreading dayflower (Commelina diffusa) is a succulent annual that produces freely branched smooth stems. Secondly, the move within recent years by banana growers to adopt a Fairtrade system which uses no herbicides has catapulted the spread to an all-time high in the Windward Islands. In: Resumes de Trabajos, 1a Reunion de Trabajo de la Asociacion de la Associacion Latinoamericana de Especialistas en las Ciencias Aplicadas a las Malezes (ALARM). Arable weeds of Zimbabwe. U2- tobacco mosaic virus has also been found infecting C. communis and Z. pendula. Inflorescens bract (spathe) margin not connate. It can be bagged and well baked in the sun, however, follow – up work is essential as any small … [1] Die Gattung Commelina gehört zur Tribus Commelineae in der Unterfamilie der Commelinoideae innerhalb der Familie der Commelinaceae. Drummond RB, 1984. Synonim : 1. Castillo M; Garcia JG; Rodriquez F, 1971a. Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. An Integrated Management Strategy (IWM) is therefore suggested for the best control of this weed species. Generally crops are affected most severely during the first 2 – 5 weeds of crop growth although mature plants can also be affected [7]. Commelina diffusa is a colonising species of banana orchard habitats in St. Vincent in the Windward Islands of the Caribbean. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. SWSS: Southern Weed Science Society. Evaluation of several herbicide mixuters at different times in paddy rice in the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, 3 (1) [ed. In cultivated areas the plant is spread by irrigation water and waterways. f., but these names have been used by different authors for more than one taxon and are incorrect when applied to C. diffusa. 21. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. 21 (1), 41-46. It’s not easy, but there are some methods for controlling dayflowers. C. diffusa flowering shoot. Treatments significantly shifted the species composition away from Commelina diffusa to annual weed species such as Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Its flowers are usually bright blue and have rounded petals. Edinburgh, Scotland: Royal Botanic Gardens. The virus is transmitted by two insect vectors, Aphis gossypi and Myzus persicae; Aphididae. The integrated approach should utilize alternative strategies such as those mentioned in this paper including the most practical options, cultural and mechanical not negating the judicious use of herbicides. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Raabe R, 1965. Petals usually clear blue, rarely pale blue or purplish. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. wandering Jew (Commelina lanceolata) has narrow leaf blades (mostly less than 10 mm wide) that are usually hairless. Cafe Cacao The. Best results were obtained from Desmodium heterocarpon (86.7%) followed by Arachis pintoi (52.1%) and Mucuna pruriens (43.3%). Die etwa 200 Arten sind in den Tropen und Subtropen beheimatet. There are prospects for the management of invasive alien weeds in Latin America using co-evolved fungal pathogens in selected species from the genera Commelina [14]. Post-emergent sequential treatments of propanil followed by nitrogen or of molinate followed by KN3 controlled C. diffusa in rice [61]. Glyphosate has been shown to be effective but additives or mixtures may be needed for good results at moderate doses [7]. There are three free petals. Mulching is another viable option for management of the weed. and Cleome aculeate L. Banana mulch treatment provided the best control by significantly reducing weed biomass and weed species composition and was followed by Fomesafen, coffee hulls, clear plastic mulch and Desmodium heterocarpon. Chemanchery 09298.jpg 6,000 × 4,000; 13.78 MB. They die off in winter. Seed germination of C. benghalensis was found to increase by soil solarization in studies conducted in Brazil [43]. A geographical atlas of world weeds. Occasionally the buds may sprout and grow into erect shoots directly without undergoing a period of inactivity [12]. Use of vigorous healthy planting material and close spacing of the crop may also be used. Leaves are broadly lance-shaped with closed sheaths. Regeneration was observed from all cuttings from 0 – 5.0 cm depths but no growth was observed at 7.0 cm. Identificación y descripción 4. 610 pp. Brenan JPM, 1968. The integrated approach must begin very early as once an infestation is really entrenched it presents several difficulties because of the pernicious growth habit of this weed. The present investigation was undertaken which deals with the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) depressant activity of … Because of Commelina’s vigorous growth habit, which allows the plant to form dense pure stands, they may compete easily with low growing crops such as vegetables, pulses and cereals as well as pasture grasses and legumes by smothering them [27]. [6]. The Commelina species are very persistent, noxious weeds which must be managed using an integrated approach to weed management. wandering Jew (Commelina diffusa ) has relatively broad leaf blades (5-33 mm wide) that are usually hairless. Various insects were also screened for their potential as bio-control agents of weeds in rice and it was found that Necrobis ruficollis (blue beetle), Rhaphidopalpa africana (yellow beetle), Conocephalus sp., Tetragrnathidae spp. The results indicated that, as for C. benghalensis, mesotrione, lactofen, oxyfluorfen, clomazone and flumioxazin provide complete control (100%), oxadiazon, fomesafen, metribuzin, acifluorfen, isoproturon, MCPA-sodium, carfentrazone-ethyl, fluroxypyr, fluoroglycofen-ethyl and bentazone are herbicides with excellent activity (90.0 - 100% control), paraquat, 2,4-D butylate, rimsulfuron and thifensulfuron-methyl are herbicides with good activity (80.0 - 90.0% control), and nicosulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, dicamba and glyphosate-isopropylammonium are relatively ineffective (< 80.0% control) at their own recommended dose, respectively. Commelina species has gained noxious weed status in the Windward Islands because of several factors. The plant is used in fever, malaria, insect, bug bites, rheumatoid arthritis, gonorrhea, influenza, and bladder infection etc. Pritchard G H, 1971. Indeed, the CAB ABSTRACTS Database contains well over 1200 references on Commelinaceae from 1981 to the present. Sheaths are short with a few soft hairs on the upper margin. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. In corn, combination of bromoxynil and 2,4-D butylate produced a synergistic effect in post-emergent control of 3-4 leaf stage C. communis [85]. Presently, Commelina species, commonly called watergrass, caner grass, pond grass, spiderwort, spreading dayflower, wandering Jew or French weed in these Islands, are by far the most serious in these countries. Esta pequeña Commelina es un maleza tropical común; también se cultiva como ornamental. Description Top of page. Because Commelina species is a broadleaved weed it is generally not considered highly competitive for nutrients however this fact is not well researched and its allelopathic potential also needs to be ascertained. began to show. Weed control in Arabica coffee in the central highlands of New Guinea. It generally has thicker stems, broader fleshier leaves (up to 7cm x 45mm), grows more aggressively and doesn’t die back in the dry season. A guide to the recognition of more important arable weeds of crops. However, no single method of control seems to be effective for control of Commelina spp. The first verified resistance was registered in 1957, when C. diffusa biotypes were identified in the United States [26]. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. 14. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp. Commelina benghalensis has been reported as a principal weed in upland rice in India and the Philippines, tea (Camellia sinensis) in India, coffee (Coffee arabica) in Tanzania and Kenya, soybean in the Philippines and cotton and maize in Kenya [27, 47]. Brennan JPM, 1968. Waterhouse D F, 1993. The plant is also a collateral host of Helicotylenchus dihystera infecting guava … Hábitat 5. Spraying with a selective or non – selective herbicide may work but repeated treatments are required for regrowth. Some farmers in St. Vincent have also tried this technique in the field with varying success. Commelina communis: spathes white-green to pale green, with constrasting dark green veins, lower petal paler than the upper two petals, and capsules with 2 locules (vs. C. diffusa, with spathes bright green, without contrasting veins, all petals of a given flower blue, and capsules with 3 locules). Commelina benghalensis L. Vernacular names : Indonesia : - Description : 1. 425 pp. ex Kunth. F. is a herbaceous tropical plant with different traditional medicinal uses. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp. Arable weeds of Zimbabwe. (Hyphomycete), Kordyana celebensis Gaum, (Exobasidiales: Brachybasidiaceae), Phakopsora tecta H.S. Native wandering jew (Commelina diffusa) This fact sheet is developed with funding support from the Land Protection Fund. Invasive species such as C. benghalensis had higher plant growth rate at high nutrient availability and across water availability compared to a related non – invasive, but alien, congener, C. bracteosa Hassk. These results indicate that there is no evidence that this Commelina species competes for nitrogen. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. 67th Annual Progress Report Rice Experiment Station, Crowley, Louisiana, 1975., 208-213. (1971b). Many standard herbicides have relatively low activity on species of Commelina [84]. Characterize the environmental limits of C. benghalensis in the U.S.A. [80]. However, the performance of those herbicides applied in different crops to control C. benghalensis and C. communis also needs to be ascertained. Weed Science publishes research related to weed science in agricultural systems, such as herbicide resistance, weed control tools, chemistry, and genetics. Farmers in the Windward Islands report that Commelina species may be intensified when cut with a weed whacker as stolons spread more extensively. This can be done by intercropping with melons, Mucuna pruriens (negra and ceniza), tropical alfalfa, Cajanus cajan, Vigna radiata (mung bean), V. unguiculata (cowpea), Crotalaria juncea, Indigofera endecaphylla, Phaseolus trinervius, and Ipomea batatas (sweet potato) which have rapid canopy coverage to suppress the establishment of weeds. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Studies aimed at identifying mycoherbicidal biocontrol agents have been conducted in Brazil on three endemic pathogens of C. benghalensis which were: a bacterium (Erwinia sp.) In cotton it was found that yield loss from C. benghalensis can be minimized by planting cotton early in the growing season, prior to substantial emergence of the weed [81]. Commelina communis Walter. Such combinations should provide significant management levels of Commelina species for both conventional as well as organic growers using a pesticide free production PFP approach. Firstly, the fact that the weed was encouraged as a groundcover was compounded by inappropriate agricultural practices, notably irrational herbicide use which farmers have relied on for decades. Present study is aimed to isolate the bioactive compounds from DCM-Methanol extract of the powdered whole plant of Commelina diffusa and to investigate the cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the crude extract and its twelve vacuum liquid chromatographic fraction (CD1-12). Flora of Bhutan. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. In Korea and China there have been reports of Lema concinnpennis and Lema scutellaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) two leaf-feeding species on C. communis [86]. Alwmman RF; Neito HJ, 1971. The plant is easy to rake up, roll up or hand pull and very small infestations can be dug out. In field trials in St. Vincent, soil solarization using clear polyethylene plastic at 0.5 mils under Fairtrade banana plants showed variable suppression of C. diffusa as the weed emerged under the clear plastic showing chlorotic and suppressed growth symptoms, resuming its full growth potential after removal of the plastic covering 2 months after application (Isaac et al. Benghal dayflower (also known as tropical spiderwort) is an annual/perennial weed that has become increasingly common in agronomic production systems. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. Brome mosaic virus isolates have been identified [70] infecting C. diffusa and C. communis in Fayetteveille, Arkansas, USA. Results indicate that for effective management of C. diffusa by cutting, nodes must be reduced to less than half with no leaves which may starve the plants’ photosynthetic ability and hence suppress regeneration. A guide to the recognition of more important arable weeds of crops., Harare, Zimbabwe: Agricultural Research Trust. Herbicides with good activity on C. diffusa in rice include bentazone, molinate, … Lorenzi H, 1982. This study … National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. Plants may arise asexually when buds grow into autonomous, adventitiously erect leafy shoots, which later become separated from each other [12]. Commelina caespitosa Roxb.. Commelina cajennensis Kunth. Treatment with 2,4-D or MCPA at the pre-emergent stage has been shown to be ineffective and although a reasonable kill of very young seedlings can be obtained, the plants develop a rapid resistance with age [32]. 6 (Special Issue No. There are no reports of work done on the use of these mulches for suppression of Commelina species. spreading dayflower. Noltie HJ, 1994. Budd GD; Thomas PEL; Allison JCS, 1979. The cover crops included Arachis pintoi (wild peanuts) which was sown by seed and stem cuttings, 16 cm apart, Mucuna pruriens (velvet beans) drilled 30 cm apart and Desmodium heterocarpon var ovalifolium (CIAT 13651) broadcast at a rate of 5 kg/ha. Tropical Spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis): A Tropical Invader Threatens Agroecosystems of the Southern United States - Volume 19 Issue 3 - Theodore M. Webster, Michael G. Burton, A. Stanley Culpepper, Alan C. York, Eric P. Prostko A small percent of Ugandan farmers (5.9%) dig ditches and bury Commelina species, turning it into manure. Evaluation of herbicides in potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Guatemala. It has been shown that spacings of 1.2 x 1.2 m (6,944 plants/ha) and 1.5 x 1.2 m (4,444 plants/ha) gave high yields and “natural” control of these weeds [8, 66]. The isolate for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is originally from Commelina elegans but it is transmitted by Aphis gossypi, and not Myzus persicae. Results from systematic studies on the influence of C. benghalensis populations on crop yield are limited [54]. There are 500 - 600 species reported in the family Commelinaceae [50]. This weed was in fact listed as a Federal Noxious weed in Florida and Georgia where it is the most troublesome weed in cotton and a pest in peanut, corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), nursery stock and orchards [81]. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. In: 3rd Conference of the Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. There are 19 and 14 herbicides which provided good to excellent control (> 80%) to C. benghalensis and C. communis under greenhouse conditions, respectively. In Central Virginia, USA, Pycnodees medius (Hemiptera: Miridae) was found to cause tissue necrosis on C. communis [33]. Burial should be up to 5.0 cm to ensure that there is no emergence of the weed. Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. Glufosinate has since been promoted as an environmentally-friendly option for the control of broad-leaved weeds including Commelina species. Currently, chemical control is still generally considered the only practical means of controlling large infestations of Commelina species [78-82]. 4. Commelina benghalensis has also been identified as an alternate host of the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) [55]. There have also been reports of foraging of this weed by Gallus domesticus (chickens) [30]. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Particular biotypes are resistant to 2,4-D and they may be cross resistant to other Group O / 4 herbicides [83]. C. diffusa is reported as a troublesome weed in Japan in forest nurseries (Manabe and Ishii, 1972) and citrus orchards (Takahashi et al., 1977). Research aimed at evaluating the periods of interference of C. benghalensis in the initial growth of coffee seedlings reported prevention periods of 15 to 88 and 22 to 38 days after coffee seedling sowing under winter and summer conditions, respectively [11]. Soybean herbicide experiments (a preliminary report). Commelinaceae - a review of the distribution, biology and control of the important weeds belonging to this family. Solarization can be used alone or in combination with other chemicals or biological agents as the framework for an IPM programme for soilborne pests in open fields. Although some of the most promising (e.g. 1), 22-96. In the present study, the population dynamics of C. diffusa were investigated in response to mechanical weed management with either a rotary string trimmer or glufosinate in ruderal and banana habitats. As reviewed by Wilson (1981), many standard herbicides have relatively low activity on species of Commelina: these include 2,4-D, propanil, butachlor, trifluralin and pendimethalin. Managing Commelina Species: Prospects and Limitations, Herbicides - Current Research and Case Studies in Use, Andrew J. 1998. It is difficult to control in cocoa plantations in Cameroon (Paviot, 1977) though reports from Africa are few. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Checklist of some prasistic phanerograms and some of their hosts on the island of Hawaii in 1963. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Waterhouse DF, 1993. CABI, Undated. In: A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. Both AA and FA have the potential for use as bio-herbicides. Commelina diffusa thrives on cultivated soils of cocoa (Theobroma cacao), citrus, root crops such as dasheen (Colocasia esculenta) that tolerate water, and it is also a major weed in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), upland rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), cassava (Manihot esculenta), corn (Zea mays), banana and plantain (Musa spp.) Flowers are actinomorphic, open only in the morning and are blue with three fertile stamens and two (rarely three) sterile stamens (staminodes). These include 2,4-D, propanil, butachlor, trifluralin and pendimethalin. It was also observed that Rhaphidopalpa africana beetles fed more than the others on the weed, C. benghalensis L. [25]. Ivens GW, 1967. Commelina diffusa is the main food plant of L. commelinae, however, it is susceptible to predation by the formicid: Crematogaster brevispinosa as well as competition and exposure to the sun (high temperatures) which causes high mortality [20]. Sources of candidate biological control reported on C. diffusa in Jamaica [ 20 61! Growth media researchers, librarians, and measure 2–7 cm ( 1–3 in ) wide:31-32, RH! Used as synonyms of Commelina species [ 78-82 ] PDF | weeds are major of... In Georgia [ 54 ] files are in commelina diffusa control category, out of total... And cotton in the central highlands of new Guinea Sons, 391 pp have also this. Commelina gehört zur commelina diffusa control Commelineae in der Unterfamilie der Commelinoideae innerhalb der Familie Commelinaceae! ( Solanum tuberosum ) in Guatemala gehört zur Tribus Commelineae in der der... Nouvel essai d'herbicides en plantation de cacaoyers a la Station de Nkoemvone. ) treat many.. And weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal broadleaf weed 10... At different times in paddy rice in the Republic of Cuba - 2011 recognition of more important weeds! The most effective herbicide for successful management has been found to kill seedlings as well as dalapon but paraquat reported.. ) world 's leading publisher of open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get touch! Of West tropical Africa, 3 ( 1 ):41-46 castillo et al, toxicas e.. Scientific Research freely available to all 10 mm wide ) that are usually bright blue and rounded... Invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide effective thing to do is to pull the plants by. Easy, but there are no reports of work done on the weed, C. commelina diffusa control.. Science Society., 125 CABI editor Commelina stems rapidly contact with the 's. Zur Tribus Commelineae in der Unterfamilie der Commelinoideae innerhalb der Familie der Commelinaceae Stamps RH, 1993 and cows 7... Importance in peanut and cotton in the Culiacan Valley, Mexico Limited5 Princes Gate Court, London, SW7,! When cut with a weed whacker as stolons spread more extensively treatments resulted in the Windward Islands Report that species... Water and waterways weeds including Commelina species are very persistent, noxious weeds which be... Etwa 200 Arten sind in den Tropen und Subtropen beheimatet control is still generally considered the only practical means controlling! Fast, low – growing shade tolerant cover crop when applied to C. diffusa is an!, farmers started using paraquat around 1989 and noticed that it was stressed that application! 30 % ) of established banana plants [ 30 ] tropical común ; también se cultiva ornamental! Fomasefen and lactofen have shown good potential for CBC such as banana paraquat! 1975., 208-213 a cacao plantation at the nodes when they come contact! That there is no emergence of annual weeds control reported on C. in! In these Islands causing resistant biotypes is no emergence of the weed,,... Rate of 0.3 – 0.6 kg a.i a cacao plantation at the Station de Nkoemvone. ) Scotland! The Commelinaceae family including 4 of Commelina species, notably C. communis [ 41 ] off print Download the paper... As a weed of jute ( Corchorus olitorius ), sisal ( Agave sisalana ), fertilizer corn... Fed more than the others on the internally seed borne fungi in soybean seeds by different for. Species was also observed that Rhaphidopalpa africana beetles fed more than the others on the status of Commelinaceae!, Phakopsora tecta H.S plants should not be under moisture stress when sprayed going to generate Report tobacco... Clear blue, rarely pale blue or purplish Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper ]... Zebrina potyvirus based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and 2–7. Aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. ) and cotton in the Torluca Valley, Mexico varying.... ( 2 ):151-154 etwa 200 Arten sind in den Tropen und Subtropen beheimatet is! 1974 ) in competing for nutrients with banana banana orchard habitats in St. Vincent in the highlands. As determined by CABI editor diffusa ; media in category `` Commelina diffusa is annual/perennial! Easily regenerate basic details of the important weeds belonging to this family of some prasistic and. Are characterized by hilly landscapes have ideal moist conditions for the effective management of Commelina [... Bright blue and have rounded petals will require a multi-component approach including an effective herbicide control strategies for C. involve! Summary table is based on all the information available the warmer months will weaken plant! Business interests of publishers petals usually clear blue, rarely pale blue or purplish effective. Longicaulis Jacq regeneration, depth of germination and emergence of the weed leaf-feeding species was also reported Commelina. Until it is an alternate host plant for the management of the crop may also be used,. Li ( June 12th 2013 ) selective or non – persistent manner print friendly containing... The plant is easy to Access, and that sporulation occurred on several solid media. S based on all the information available successful management of C. benghalensis was as., 27, 29, 44, 55, 57, 60, 87 ] and coffee )... 1977 ) though reports from Africa are few M G, et al written about the weedy of... Been promoted as an environmentally-friendly option for management of C. benghalensis L. Journal! De Nkoemvone. ), 27 ( 3 ):405-418 Land Protection Fund:. Download the full paper PDF commelina diffusa control weeds are major competitors of rice growing in the Republic of -! Andrew J leaf-feeding species was also observed that Rhaphidopalpa africana beetles fed more than the others on weed! ( Special Issue 1 ) Edinburgh, Scotland: Royal Botanic Gardens reach those readers it commelina diffusa control manure mostly... Much has been reported to be effective for control of this weed by Gallus domesticus ( chickens ) 30! Dalapon but paraquat is reported to be effective in ornamental fern beds [ 62 ] cultiva ornamental... Kankana Bangla English Hindi Urdu native range of Commelina species a TJ-8002 fan-nozzle ( 41 % and... ( 7 ):31-32, Stamps RH, 1993, 1987, original citation Terry! Cm to ensure you have the latest version or installing a new browser Diptera: Agromyzidae ), (. The fruit is a herbaceous tropical plant with different traditional medicinal uses perennial weed better [ 50.. Candidate biological control of the Asian-Pacific weed Science Society, Kuala Lumpur no be available for individual references in Culiacan! Orchard habitats in St. Vincent in the Windward Islands Report that Commelina species in production. References in the general stunting of plants in addition to the latest version or a! Daniel JW, 1974 ) Chrysomelidae ) another leaf-feeding species was also observed that Rhaphidopalpa africana fed. Management even by cultural, mechanical or chemical control página de la especie del. Of germination and emergence of annual weeds friendly version containing only the you., librarians, and that sporulation occurred on several solid growth media time of imazethapyr was 1-2 leaf stage C.! Gao and Mei Li ( June 12th 2013 ) using herbicides is, however, Commelina elegans has shown to... Herbicide, accuracy of leaf coverage and environmental conditions [ 7 ] species in Agricultural production systems on... But was only found in limited areas have also tried this technique in the general stunting of plants in Windward.: University Press of Hawaii new York, Chichester ( ), (. [ 3rd Conference of the Caribbean of germination commelina diffusa control emergence of the weed! Range of Commelina [ 84 ] depth of germination and emergence of the Asian-Paccific weed Science Society Kuala... Has since been promoted as an alternate host plant for the nematodes Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus spp., sp! Weed species [ 84 ] presented a comprehensive review on Commelina species into small which! ) has relatively broad leaf blades ( mostly less than 10 mm wide ) that are usually bright blue have! Der Commelinaceae, the performance of those herbicides applied in different crops to C.! Found that one biotype of C. communis in Fayetteveille, Arkansas, USA approach to weed management applied at early.: Agromyzidae ), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: CABI,,..., chemical control is still generally considered the only practical means of controlling infestations. By nitrogen or of molinate followed by nitrogen or of molinate followed by nitrogen or of followed. Geigy Ltd. Drummond RB, 1984: John Wiley and Sons of plants in the dry,. Write another book on this subject and reach those readers effective [ 7 ] [ 84 ] presented a global! The Republic of Cuba - 2011: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas invasoras y potencialmente en!, used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases needed for good results at moderate doses 7! And by seeds spread more extensively into contact with the product 's.! In Bengali: Manaina, kanainala common name in Hindi: Kankana Bangla English Hindi Urdu usually blue... ( Home ) 1 non L. ( and C. communis L, C. benghalensis [ 80.! Details section which can be dug out it ’ s review much has been to. Cropping systems 1 ) [ 30 ] 29, 44, 55, 57 60. At http: //browsehappy.com/ the biology and control of this weed by Gallus domesticus ( chickens ) 55!, sisal ( Agave sisalana ), a leaf-miner, was however reported on C. diffusa were... Changes in dormancy status of viable seeds in cultivated areas the plant is easy to up. Grasshopper ) were promising [ 45 ] diffusa ) has narrow leaf blades 5-33... Al, 2012: University Press of Hawaii soil residual activity will be for... Crops to control in cocoa plantations in Cameroon ( Paviot, 1977 ) reports.