What is the difference between the return of … In the function body, we used a for loop staetment to process the query row by row.. al.) Here we've passed in Department as the argument which means that we expect to get rows in the general form of Department records which is an integer followed by a text string, so we tell PostgreSQL that the alias for the result should be called dept and that it is made up of an integer named deptid and a text named deptname. The name of a table it acts > on is one of its input variables, and its output is a set of rows > from that table. Copyright © 1996-2020 The PostgreSQL Global Development Group, 20021218071927.J85864-100000@megazone23.bigpanda.com, return setof record from function with dynamic query, Re: return setof record from function with dynamic query, Stephan Szabo , Toby Tremayne . 2003/06/26 12:13 EST (via web): This tells PostgreSQL that you want to the function to return an composite type but that you're going to tell it what types to expect later. Add your comments here... 2005/07/11 16:59 GMT (via web): The function may return either a refcursor value or a SETOF some datatype. Last updated 4th April 2003. The name of a table it acts on is one of its input variables, and its output is a set of rows from that table. > > > I have a plpgsql function that returns dataset. Now, what about some samples of functions that return sets in C language? If I create a function that insert something but returns nothing (or a success/error code) how would I go about it? Yes, I agree.. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION wordFrequency(maxTokens INTEGER) RETURNS SETOF RECORD AS $$ BEGIN SELECT text, count(*), 100 / maxTokens * count(*) FROM ( SELECT text FROM token WHERE chartype = 'ALPHABETIC' LIMIT maxTokens ) as tokens GROUP BY text ORDER BY count DESC END $$ LANGUAGE plpgsql; The body of the loop is the new return form, 'return next' which means that an output row is queued into the return set of the function. Technically I think you still get a result set containing a NULL, but you don't have to use a final select. If you make a mistake, you'll get an error at creation time for SQL functions and at execute time for PL/pgSQL functions. 2003/06/26 04:31 EST (via web): Use the drop function statement with the cascade option to drop a function and its dependent objects and objects that depends on those objects, and so on. I want to> pass the results of that query as a recordset to the caller - I can> do it as a refcursor (but via odbc a refcursor just appears as an> empty recordset, no use at all. PostgreSQL 7.3 now supports a much more flexible system for writing set returning functions (SRFs) that when combined with some of the new function permission options allow a greater flexibility in setting up schemas. For the longest time I was stuck on getting 0 records back. You can't do it in 7.2. When you use the function, you need to say something like: select * from func() as foo(col1 int, col2 varchar, ...); Since it's an arbitrary record type, it doesn't know what the types are, so you need to provide it at select time. It returns a rowset of rows defined by the type holder (int, int8). See: It's pretty ugly and when I did the discussion at SFPUG it was pretty unanimous that it was a bad hack and pretty much the wrong way to go about solving the problem. Re: return setof record from function with dynamic query at 2002-12-18 15:21:10 from Stephan Szabo Re: return setof record from function with dynamic query at 2002-12-18 15:32:29 from Masaru Sugawara Browse pgsql-general by date Assign to OUT variables. I am using postgreSQL version 7.2.2 The following simplified example shows what I'm talking about Is this even possible in PostgreSQL ? In fact setof implies that I know the kind of record, but this information is know only at runtime. This variable will be used to store the rows coming from the query in the main body of the function. as I am new to postgreSQL and functions, I try to execute the first example given above GetEmployees(). Hello! (2 replies) I am porting some Oracle code to PLPGSQL and am having a problem with functions that return SETOF datatype. The following illustrates how to call the get_film() function: A caviat: if you are dealing with a WHERE clause in the EXECUTE SELECT, you may want to quote_literal() your string variables (if they are being passed in). 2003/05/28 11:34 EST (via web): then I get a ---> ERROR: parser: parse error at or near "(". #include function with multiple return values 2003/05/29 08:00 EST (via web): something like DECLARE rec RECORD; BEGIN rec.$1 := 1; (...), 2004/05/22 09:02 AST (via web): Let's do something very simple, a function that returns the numbers from 1 to an argument and those numbers doubled. In that case, you can return a setof record. For example, to use this function to get all the information on employees with an id greater than 2 you could write: This is great, but what if you wanted to return something more complicated, for example, a list of departments and the total salary of all employees in that department. Use drop function statement to remove a function. Just a quick note for a problem I was having. The major changes to the workings of the function are inside the loop, so let's look more closely. If you call your set-returning function the wrong way (IOW the way you might normally call a function), you will get this error message: Set-valued function called in context that cannot accept a set. There is another approach to doing this, and that is to use the ANSI Standard RETURNS TABLE construct. We can then define functions that return sets of this type. special case for a single column output. Is there a way to have a function return an agregate of custom types? INSIDE function. So far, the composite type returning functions only work if you're certain that you're returning a type that is made up of the same types as the one the function is declared to return. cases it must be done interatively): sszabo, 2003/05/15 19:18 EST (via web): If there is only one output parameter, write that parameter's type instead of record. To Warmage: In 7.3, I believe you can make a function return void if you don't want to use its value. 2003/04/04 15:21 EST (via web): I think it won't like spaces much either. Thank you. Note that if you don't fill in all the values for the return type for each return next, old values will be used, so you have to manually null them. The other documentation is very weak on this subject, WarMage 2003/01/28 08:04 EST (via web): This page was last edited on 19 May 2012, at 09:40. Here is an example of my probem : For example: Without quote_literal(), the query tends to choke on special characters (like colons, dashes, et. We could also use RECORD. I've tested this with 4 levels of recursion so far and its worked, so I believe it is correct. Dynamic, using AS (name type, …) at call site : SETOF RECORD. The SETOF modifier indicates that the function will return a set of items, rather than a single item. 2004/04/05 13:55 AST (via web): Calling function GetRows(text) error: testdb=# select * from GetRows('department') as dept(deptid integer, deptname text); ERROR: parser: parse error at or near "(" testdb=# why? The PL/pgSQL function is a little more complicated, but let's go through it. 2003/03/10 08:37 EST (via web): [Maybe: SELECT * FROM c_fcn() AS (a int, b text);]. PostgreSQL's™ stored functions can return results in two different ways. I need a Postgres function to return a virtual table (like in Oracle) with custom content. My original problem is that the function takes one parameter of type regclass as input and returns a setof records (the row type of the corresponding input regclass). First let's look at a simple SQL function that returns an existing table's rowtype. Here it is again in (hopefully) a bit friendlier format: A caviat: if you are dealing with a WHERE clause in the EXECUTE SELECT, you may want to quote_literal() your string variables (if they are being passed in). Using Function returning setof record in JOIN; Why I need to use SETOF TEXT when I'm returning single column? PostgreSQL treats these functions somewhat similarly to table subselects and uses a similar syntax for providing this information as one would use to give aliases to subselect columns. From: To: pgsql-sql(at)postgresql(dot)org: Subject: plpgsql function returning SETOF RECORD Question: Date: 2004-02-23 13:21:32 Depending on which of these return methods are used determines how the function should be called. Here it is again. Note that for the return next we are not returning the record r, but instead are returning just the departmentid because this function returns a set of integers. The rows that it returns are defined by the group by query in its body. If you come from a SQL Server or IBM DB2 background, the RETURNS TABLE construct is probably most familiar, but still … calling a stored function which return set of records. I've tried the following using PostgreSQL 9.2: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test() RETURNS SETOF record Which gives me the following error: ERROR: a column definition list is required for functions returning "record" I've also tried: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test() RETURNS table () The following simplified example shows what I'm talking about (I know this could be done with sub-selects, but in more complicated cases it must be done interatively): 2003/04/24 16:48 EST (via web): If you came here wondering how you can return multiple values from a function (like in Oracle PL/SQL): CREATE FUNCTION temp() RETURNS record DECLARE v_record RECORD; BEGIN select 1, 6, 8 into v_record; return v_record; END; Then you do: select * from temp() as (int4, int4, int4). The body of the function is a very simple SQL statement to generate the output rows. It give me this error: WARNING: Error occurred while executing PL/pgSQL function getnum WARNING: line 8 at return next ERROR: Set-valued function called in context that cannot accept a set Is there any one can tell me what wrong with it??? Thanks, this helped quite a bit. In this case I cannot create a wrapper function since the return type is known only at the execution time, can't I? I'd think it'd be better to have a way to set the rowtype explicitly (perhaps to a row value constructor) since there's also cases where setting the fields to NULL is explicitly what you don't want. 2005/03/13 14:59 GMT (via web): This becomes an issue when denormalizing data which is too complex to handle with a select, and so must be done with nested 'for select in' loops. Add your comments here... 2003/04/17 05:53 EST (via web): (I know this could be done with sub-selects, but in more complicated The return type of the function is setof employee, meaning it is going to return a rowset of employee rows. If you want to return an existing record type, you need to make a dummy type to hold the output type, for example: Here we are defining a new type named holder which is a composite type of an integer named departmentid and a bigint named totalsalary. justinc, 2003/01/28 16:35 EST (via web): I have a stored function in a postgresql databse, and I want to call it from my java program. 2003/10/24 16:45 EST (via web): Unfortunately, we overlooked the possibility of distinguishing between functions that return a TABLE (of a type) or a SETOF (a type) in PostgreSQL. create or replace function get_current_rec(numeric) returns setof rec as ' declare r rec%rowtype; begin for r in select a, b, c, d as total from table where key = $1 loop if r.replaced_by IS NULL THEN return next r; ELSE raise notice ''trying to fetch record for %'',r.replaced_by; select into r * from get_current_rec(r.replaced_by); return next r; end if; end loop; return; end ' language 'plpgsql'; SETOF anyelement - get_call_result_type; set returning function with variable argument - possible? -Josh. RETURN NEXT var; SETOF Same as table or view structure : SETOF RECORD. For example: CREATE FUNCTION public.sp_get_baz_for_cust(bpchar) RETURNS SETOF bpchar AS ' DECLARE cust_id ALIAS FOR $1; baz_num CHAR( 15 ); selected_baz RECORD; BEGIN FOR selected_baz IN EXECUTE SELECT baz_number FROM baz_table WHERE customer_id = || quote_literal( cust_id ) LOOP RETURN NEXT selected_baz.ticket_number; END LOOP; RETURN; END; Without quote_literal(), the query tends to choke on special characters (like colons, dashes, et. I think it won't like spaces much either. by Stephan Szabo Thank You. Something like: 2003/10/25 15:33 EST (via web): The return next statement adds a row to the returned table of the function.. No-return function (If possible), Any help will be apreciated as i am still very new to postgresql 2003/10/17 19:26 EST (via web): I have a function returning setof record. This tutorial must become part of Postgresql Function Documentation. My first here and didn't realize I'd need to format. Please keep on adding to this section. How can I cath the system errors that plpgsql return ?? So you are not bound to use SETOF with polymorphic types like you speculated. Here we're figuring out the total salary plus the overhead and updating the record appropriately. 2003/05/27 11:31 EST (via web): This does not cause the function to return. Incorrect: select sr_func(arg1, arg2, ...); Correct: select * from sr_func(arg1, arg2, ...); 2003/03/29 13:52 EST (via web): – arthur Nov 6 '13 at 9:21 > First it was defined to return SETOF someview. GREAT!!! 2003/04/17 03:39 EST (via web): The SETOF modifier indicates that the function will return a set of items, rather than a single item. SRFs can return either a rowtype as defined by an existing table or a generic record type. Newbie: This article requires PostgreSQL version 7.3 or greater. For this function we'll write a version in SQL and then a version in PL/pgSQL: The SQL is very similar to the GetEmployee() function above. old records-> new records. Want to edit, but don't see an edit button when logged in? I got problem while I try to use function in a Select query : i get> error executing query declare mycursor for select * from GetEmlpoyees() WHERE id > 2 ; PostgreSQL error message: ERROR: parser parse error at or near "(" PostgreSQL status:PGRES_FATAL_ERROR Does anyone know why i can't use function in a Query ? Next, we want to determine if the totalsalary is now greater than 100,000 and if so return it's identifier, so. 2003/02/27 11:27 EST (via web): Is there any way to get the n-th item in a record? If we instead had wanted to return a holder to include the salary + overhead value, we could have defined the function to return setof holder and used return next r; here. Currently, SRF returning PL/pgSQL functions must generate the entire result set before returning although if the set becomes large it will be written to disk. Does someone know what is wrong with the example? Consider a function with header: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION dates_pkg.getbusinessdays(pstartdate timestamp … We can do the same thing using a record type so that we do not need an outside type, however it is much more complicated and involves a bogus select. So, when we implemented support for table-valued functions, we only supported those that return a TABLE type, in jOOQ 3.5. jOOQ 3.6 will also support SETOF functions. If someone know that please contact me at: nmogas@xlm.pt. ...it would still be nice just to see how the last example could be done with a RECORD type. Are you calling it like select GetNum(1); or select * from GetNum(1); ? These functions are used in the same fashion as the first function. Its a great HELP!!! The type of a column is referenced by writing table_name.column_name%TYPE. You have to do something like (given r as record type and returning setof record): select into r 1::int as num, 1::int as doublenum; before using r in the for loop. Does anyone have an example of a C function which returns a SETOF RECORD? I tried building the string as SELECT baz_number FROM baz_table WHERE customer_id = ' || cust_id || ' - no dice. > ERROR: A column definition list is required for functions returning RECORD. An SRF can be used in place of a table or subselect in the FROM clause of a query. 2003/04/24 14:52 EST (via web): We need to give the system an idea of what types we expect this function to return as part of the query. Perfect! In this example, we created the get_film(varchar,int) that accepts two parameters:. I have a function> (code below) that creates and executes a dynamic query. Calling this function is a little more complicated than calling the SRFs above. I assume in this that you already have some experience with writing functions in SQL and PL/pgSQL for PostgreSQL. Do you now a better way to create the type of the result type of the function. DECLARE row variable of ROW or RECORD type. 2003/10/14 18:11 EST (via web): This function returns a set of integers (department ids) rather than a set of a composite type because we only need to return the id for the expensive departments. I get a list of obvious numbers. For example, if you wanted to get an idea of operating expenses for departments where the overhead is 75% for departments whose total salaries were greater than 70,000 and 50% otherwise and only wanted to return department ids for departments whose salaries plus overhead was greater than 100,000 you might write something like: Let's look at the differences between this and PLpgSQLDepartmentSales(). Can someone help me?! quote_literal() was the solution. I agree This document should be in PostGre documentation. The table would have 3 columns and an unknown number of rows. The key point here is that you must write RETURNS SETOF record to indicate that the function returns multiple rows instead of just one. The ‘RETURN QUERY’ keyword is used to return the type ‘SETOF sales’, since we’re returning a set of records we execute a select statement to return the necessary records. Check out the sections of the manual that talk about PLPGSQL.... 35.7.1. It's very important tutorial because many people don�t know how crete that type of functions(procedures), and the way to make it on PostgreSQL is so diferent with other RDBMS such as MSSQL, ORACLE, INFORMIX, INTERBASE/FIREBIRD etc.. Obtaining a ResultSet from a stored function. Someone had wrapped their entire comment in pre /pre and made the page layout confoundingly wide. It would be really nice if someone (other than me) with a bit of spare time would hit the "Edit this page" link at the top of this page and fix up the comments and properly line up the examples. 2003/11/03 00:16 EST (via web): The main body does a loop over the group by query stated setting r to each row in sequence. quote_literal() was the solution. 2003/01/13 08:19 EST (via web): Finally, we're going to make PL/pgSQL functions that synthesize rows completely from scratch. Add your comments here... a better way to create the type would be, according to your example : create type holder as (departmentid employe.departmentid%type, totalsalary int8); Do you know if there is a way to do that ? ), but when I use the function code> below I get the error:>> ERROR: A column definition list is required for functions returning RECORD. Technical Assistance is available through the PostgreSQL Mailing Lists, available here: http://www.postgresql.org/community/lists. I run into this most often when creating complex pivot tables that do not use agrigates. Function Returning SETOF Problem. 2003/10/15 03:23 EST (via web): Related (you linked to that one yourself): Refactor a PL/pgSQL function to return the output of various SELECT queries; FOR-IN-EXECUTE to loop over a dynamic query. A PL/pgSQL function can also do additional operations on the records or only queue up only some records. Version 7.3 or greater variable argument - possible: //www.postgresql.org/community/lists this information is know only runtime! Coming from the query in its body in JOIN ; Why I need to use SETOF TEXT I! The table would have 3 columns and an unknown number of rows defined by the function is little... In SQL and PL/pgSQL * an SQL function, what about some samples of functions that synthesize completely... With the example 'll get an error at creation time for PL/pgSQL that... When an event occures there any way to have a function return an of! 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Set all columns to NULL, but for a rowtype as defined the... And records as postgresql function return setof record above but I cant get the n-th item in a future version the item. Operator # = subselect in the SELECT list of records would like to see 'return next ' the... Item in a PostgreSQL databse, and that is to use the ANSI Standard returns table construct to. Workings of the manual that talk about PLPGSQL.... 35.7.1 queue up only some records in two ways. Some records know what is wrong with the example this that you already have some experience with writing functions SQL... Of a query are not bound to use SETOF TEXT when I 'm porting return a set records. Here we 're figuring out the total salary plus the overhead and updating the record appropriately a table whose you! From my java program to make PL/pgSQL functions PostgreSQL function Documentation function are the. First version uses a pre-defined type as its return type and internal type from c_fcn ( ) the... But what happens if you make a mistake, you 'll get an error at time! Inside the loop, so let 's look more closely ( via web ): there! 00:12 EST ( via web ): is there a way to CREATE the of... The page layout confoundingly wide first here and did n't realize I 'd need to use TEXT... The group by query in the last posting for a rowtype, not a ]! Returns are defined by an existing table 's rowtype Hi all creating complex pivot tables that do not use.... N'T have to use SETOF TEXT when I 'm returning single column shown... And made the page layout confoundingly wide in PLPGSQL expect this function to return SETOF.. Wrong with the example datatype, this table being itself a named type execution time that! ( useless? is wrong with the example the return type and internal type problem I was stuck getting. Varying number of columns # = is available through the PostgreSQL Mailing Lists, available here: http:.. As part of the result type of the films its worked, so table view... 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Fresh data in as a parameter SETOF with polymorphic types like you speculated tutorial must become part of PostgreSQL Documentation... That parameter 's type instead of record returns are defined by the type of a column. I think it wo n't like spaces much either: //wiki.postgresql.org/index.php? title=Return_more_than_one_row_of_data_from_PL/pgSQL_functions & oldid=17343 will used! About PLPGSQL.... 35.7.1 workaround: you can return a set of tables and data functions! Something very simple, a function return an agregate of custom types 's type of... Be removed in a PostgreSQL databse, and that is to use with. In this that you already have some experience with writing functions in SQL PL/pgSQL! In pre /pre and made the page layout confoundingly wide loop over the by... Become part of the function are inside the loop, so a list of records ) of datatype... Arthur Nov 6 '13 at 9:21 use drop function statement to generate the output rows run into this often!

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