The integrated approach should utilize alternative strategies such as those mentioned in this paper including the most practical options, cultural and mechanical not negating the judicious use of herbicides. Commelinaceae. Paviot J, 1977. This fact is evident in young banana plantations in the Windward Islands where stems become dried and shrivelled due to the direct contact with solar radiation particularly in the dry season. Commelina diffusa is an alternate host plant for the nematodes Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus spp., Meloidogyne sp. Identificación y descripción 4. Flora of Bhutan., 3 (1) Edinburgh, Scotland: Royal Botanic Gardens. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Original citation: Terry and Micheika, 1987, Original citation: Castillo et al. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. Basagran for dayflower control in rice. 4. An Integrated Management Strategy (IWM) is therefore suggested for the best control of this weed species. The spread of C. benghalensis is attributed, in part, to the adoption of weed management programmes that lack the use of residual herbicides along with the adoption of reduced-tillage production practices [54]. Commelina glabra G.Mey.. Commelina gracilis Ruiz & Pav.. Commelina longicaulis Jacq.. Commelina … The World's Worst Weeds. In evaluating the effectiveness of several pre-emergence herbicides in suppressing C. benghalensis emergence, it was reported that s-metolachlor (at 1.07 and 1.60 kg a.i./ha), clomazone (at 0.42 and 1.05 kg a.i./ha) and flumetron (at 1.68 kg a.i./ha) provided ≥ 80% control at 6 weeks after treatment (WAT) in cotton [80]. DTE corn weed blocker (corn gluten meal) pre-emergent weed blocker and slow release fertilizer (9-1-0) which controls emerging weeds was applied at a rate of 10 kg/ha. It is commonly associated with wet locations. in any crop. Plants should not be under moisture stress when sprayed. It generally … Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. Licensee IntechOpen. 21 (1), 41-46. In Georgia alone the weed is estimated to infest more than 80,000 ha [80-82] with a confirmed presence in 29 Georgia counties [54]. The mature aerial seeds of C. benghalensis are produced within 14 to 22 days after flower opening [74] and in some instances, e.g., the rice paddies of the Philippines, can produce in excess of 1,600 seeds/plant [53] or even 12,000 seeds/m2 [74], whereas seeds grown from underground seeds are capable of producing 8,000 seeds/m2 [74]. Distribution and Biology. The leaves are ovate to narrow-ovate, and measure 2–7 cm (1–3 in) long by 0.5–1.5 cm (0.20–0.59 in) wide. A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. Wilson [84] presented a comprehensive review on Commelina species and its management with emphasis on chemical weed control in 1981. The plant produces roots readily at the nodes of the creeping stems and will do so especially when broken or cut [27, 28]. Weed control in arabica coffee in the central highlands of New Guinea. Field studies conducted in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in 2003/2004 compared several treatments including 3 cover crops in suppressing Commelina diffusa weed infestations in banana at 63 days after application (DAA) [30]. Spreading dayflower (Commelina diffusa Burm. Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. Occasionally the buds may sprout and grow into erect shoots directly without undergoing a period of inactivity [12]. Analysis of the soluble fraction of B. plantaginea indicated a predominance of aconitic acid (AA) among the aliphatic acids and ferulic acid (FA) among the phenolic acids. began to show. However, recent research has indicated that C. diffusa compared well with many commonly used fodder crops and could contribute as a protein source for ruminants on smallholder farms [30]. Sancho EC; Chavarria PL; Garcia JG, 1971. Farmers have been forced to rely on the use of the cutlass or weed whacker as the only alternative strategies which have further intensified the problem by spreading plant propagules [30]. [38, 39]. Similar studies [5] indicated that cuttings buried deeper than 2 cm failed to regenerate. Interestingly, severe stunting has been reported in C. diffusa caused by high nitrogen [59] and altered growth and physiological characteristics for different C. erecta clones with increased phosphorus supply [71]. Manabe T; Ishii K, 1972. Commelina gigas Small. Commelina benghalensis has been reported as a principal weed in upland rice in India and the Philippines, tea (Camellia sinensis) in India, coffee (Coffee arabica) in Tanzania and Kenya, soybean in the Philippines and cotton and maize in Kenya [27, 47]. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Evaluation of several herbicide mixuters at different times in paddy rice in the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. The plant is used in fever, malaria, insect, bug bites, rheumatoid arthritis, gonorrhea, influenza, and bladder infection etc. A small percent of Ugandan farmers (5.9%) dig ditches and bury Commelina species, turning it into manure. However, he suggested that since dense mats of plant material make chemical weed control of older plants difficult, removal by hand is the only effective control at that stage [84]. In the USA, its sudden emergence as a noxious weed is attributed to crop production practices which are well suited for prolific weed growth such as minimum – tillage production (which is undertaken in conjunction with the use of glyphosate – resistant crops) and extreme tolerance to glyphosate [79-81]. Prodiamine has been reported to be effective in ornamental fern beds [62]. Chemanchery 09298.jpg 6,000 × 4,000; 13.78 MB. Harare, Zimbabwe: Agricultural Research Trust. JARQ [Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly], 11(2):84-88. Attempts have also been made to find organic treatments for control of Commelina species in banana in St. Vincent and the Grenadines [30]. Dinoseb has been found to kill seedlings as well as dalapon but paraquat is reported to be relatively ineffective [32]. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. Herbicides with good activity on C. diffusa in rice include bentazone, molinate, … Commelina diffusa Burm. The non-judicious use of herbicides has created imbalances and disturbances within the ecosystem in these Islands causing resistant biotypes. It has been found that one biotype of C. diffusa could withstand five times the dosage of a susceptible species [83]. There have not been many reports on biological control of Commelina species. In: Proceedings 3rd Conference of the Asian-Paccific Weed Science Society, Kuala Lumpur No. Pages in category "Commelina diffusa" This category contains only the following page. In: Resumes de Trabajos, 1a Reunion de Trabajo de la Asociacion de la Associacion Latinoamericana de Especialistas en las Ciencias Aplicadas a las Malezes (ALARM). Treatment with 2,4-D or MCPA at the pre-emergent stage has been shown to be ineffective and although a reasonable kill of very young seedlings can be obtained, the plants develop a rapid resistance with age [32]. Commelina diffusa is found throughout the tropics of America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, also in the subtropics in the southern part of the USA, South America, Australia and south Asian islands. The most effective herbicide control strategies for C. benghalensis involve combinations of both pre-emergence and postemergence conventional herbicides [54]. 1. Available from: Pests and diseases associated with commelina species, Department of Food Production, Faculty of Food and Agriculture, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, Institute of Plant Protection, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China. In cotton it was found that yield loss from C. benghalensis can be minimized by planting cotton early in the growing season, prior to substantial emergence of the weed [81]. (Family: Commelinaceae) is usually known as “climbing dayflower or spreading dayflower” in Bangladesh. Commelina benghalensis (Tropical spiderwort or Benghal dayflower) has become increasingly important, gaining pest significance in agronomic production systems in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States of America (USA) in crops such as cotton (Gossypium spp.) Wilson’s review on the control of these weed species was directed towards finding suitable chemicals for their control in the early stages of growth, summarizing results of trials from difference parts of the world [84]. Built by scientists, for scientists. Sheaths are short with a few soft hairs on the upper margin. Reproduction occurs via seed and stem fragments. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Both AA and FA have the potential for use as bio-herbicides. Hand weeding and rolling the weed up like a carpet is considered suitable for removal of small infestations [30], if care is taken to remove every last piece. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Surely this list can be expanded to include other Commelina species such as C. diffusa which is definitely a problematic weed in the cropping systems in the Windward Islands. Commelina diffusa Burm. Control 8. This weed was in fact listed as a Federal Noxious weed in Florida and Georgia where it is the most troublesome weed in cotton and a pest in peanut, corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), nursery stock and orchards [81]. Such combinations should provide significant management levels of Commelina species for both conventional as well as organic growers using a pesticide free production PFP approach. 6 (Special Issue No. and Cleome aculeate L. Banana mulch treatment provided the best control by significantly reducing weed biomass and weed species composition and was followed by Fomesafen, coffee hulls, clear plastic mulch and Desmodium heterocarpon. As reviewed by Wilson (1981), many standard herbicides have relatively low activity on species of Commelina: these include 2,4-D, propanil, butachlor, trifluralin and pendimethalin. in the USA [63, 64]. The virus is transmitted by two insect vectors, Aphis gossypi and Myzus persicae; Aphididae. Commelina nudiflora auct. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. Brennan JPM, 1968. There have also been reports of foraging of this weed by Gallus domesticus (chickens) [30]. Currently, chemical control is still generally considered the only practical means of controlling large infestations of Commelina species [78-82]. 68th Annual Progress Report Rice Experiment Station, Crowley, Louisiana, 1976., 82-96. This method depends on the crop infested, land size, level of technology available, value of crop, labour availability and costs, availability of draft power and the associated equipment and availability of herbicides [47]. and Cleome aculeate L. Banana mulch treatment provided the best control by significantly reducing weed biomass and weed species composition and was followed by Fomesafen, coffee hulls, clear plastic mulch and Desmodium heterocarpon. by F.N. One reasonably effective thing to do is to pull the plants out by hand. In Central Virginia, USA, Pycnodees medius (Hemiptera: Miridae) was found to cause tissue necrosis on C. communis [33]. These mycobiota would appear to be good potential agents for classical biological control (CBC) [14]. Price and Jessica A. Kelton, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/55842. Seed germination of C. benghalensis was found to increase by soil solarization in studies conducted in Brazil [43]. A geographical atlas of world weeds. Results indicate a 94.5% and 95.6% suppression of weeds including C. diffusa with coffee hulls and banana mulch treatments respectively and 100% suppression with black plastic mulch. Burial should be up to 5.0 cm to ensure that there is no emergence of the weed. In: 68th Annual Progress Report Rice Experiment Station, Crowley, Louisiana, 1976. Commelina benghalensis was reported as a weed of jute (Corchorus olitorius), sisal (Agave sisalana), beans (Phaseolus spp. 1998. Lorenzi H, 1982. [27]. There are records of agromyzid leaf miners which may be promising sources of candidate biological control agents [75]. Best results were obtained from Desmodium heterocarpon (86.7%) followed by Arachis pintoi (52.1%) and Mucuna pruriens (43.3%). The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. By Wendy-Ann Isaac, Zongjun Gao and Mei Li, Submitted: May 23rd 2012Reviewed: January 15th 2013Published: June 12th 2013, Home > Books > Herbicides - Current Research and Case Studies in Use, Herbicides - Current Research and Case Studies in Use, Edited by Andrew J. Various insects were also screened for their potential as bio-control agents of weeds in rice and it was found that Necrobis ruficollis (blue beetle), Rhaphidopalpa africana (yellow beetle), Conocephalus sp., Tetragrnathidae spp. Successful management of C. benghalensis will require a multi-component approach including an effective herbicide that provides soil residual activity [80]. Recent studies on use of residual herbicides have identified Dual Magnum® (s-metolachlor) (applied as a preplant incorporated, pre-emergent and post-emergent) as providing excellent residual control (>80%) of C. benghalensis in peanut [54]. Edinburgh, Scotland: Royal Botanic Gardens. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. There are 19 and 14 herbicides which provided good to excellent control (> 80%) to C. benghalensis and C. communis under greenhouse conditions, respectively. Enlaces 9. The most effective controls were observed with the use of the treatments T3 – Roundup Transorb R + Aurora and T6 – Roundup Transorb R with sequential after 7 days of Gramoxone being (> 90%) for Commelina benghalensis. It can be bagged and well baked in the sun, however, follow – up work is essential as any small fragment of the stem remaining will regrow and needs to be removed and destroyed off - site. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Paviot J, 1977. In: A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. It can be bagged and well baked in the sun, however, follow – up work is essential as any small … The plant is easy to rake up, roll up or hand pull and very small infestations can be dug out. Spraying with a selective or non – selective herbicide may work but repeated treatments are required for regrowth. In rice, bentazone, molinate, oxyfluorfen and bifenox are herbicides with good activity [7]. Mulching is another viable option for management of the weed. However, stems and roots remained intact. (Un nouvel essai d'herbicides en plantation de cacaoyers a la Station de Nkoemvone.). Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of several post-emergence herbicides in controlling C. communis in soybean, the results showed that imazethapyr (150 g a.i./ha), cloransulam-methyl (31.5 g a.i./ha), fomesafen (375 g a.i./ha) and mixture (756 g a.i./ha) of fomesafen plus imazethapyr with clomazone provided > 80% control of this weed at 30 days after treatment (DAT) [36, 37, 65, 67]. The current review is an attempt to provide an update on the status of the weedy Commelina species in agricultural production systems. Volume 3, Part 1 (Ed. ], Kuala Lumpur. Commelina diffusa Burm. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Smith RJ Jr, 1974. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp. Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. Characterize the environmental limits of C. benghalensis in the U.S.A. [80]. Wilson AK, 1981. Secondly, the move within recent years by banana growers to adopt a Fairtrade system which uses no herbicides has catapulted the spread to an all-time high in the Windward Islands. Commelina species, notably C. communis L, C. diffusa Burm, C. elegans Kunth. This study … f. Tripa de pollo . CABI, Undated. There have been reports of Commelina diffusa potyvirus, which causes a mosaic in Commelina diffusa and C. benghalensis [2]. Prodiamine suppresses spreading dayflower (Commelina diffusa) facilitating hand-weeding in leatherleaf fern (Rumohra adiantiformis) ground beds. It generally grows in moist and/or shady habitats. He also stated that Reglone, Round – up and Talent (paraquat + asulam) have also been used with little success for the control of Commelina species in the Windward Islands. Glufosinate has since been promoted as an environmentally-friendly option for the control of broad-leaved weeds including Commelina species. London, UK: Crown Agents. Plant Disease Reporter, 49(7):583-585. Stroud A; Parker C, 1989. It was stressed that the application of herbicides with soil residual activity will be crucial for the management of C. benghalensis [80]. 610 pp. Post-emergent sequential treatments of propanil followed by nitrogen or of molinate followed by KN3 controlled C. diffusa in rice [61]. Mulching with rice straw, cut bush, grass, coffee hulls, water hyacinth or even the dead or senescent banana leaves, pruned suckers and old stems could significantly suppress weed growth. f., but these names have been used by different authors for more than one taxon and are incorrect when applied to C. diffusa. Herbicides are not usually very effective against most Commelina species. Raabe R, 1965. The initial control of C. diffusa with glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl was improved when associated with the adjuvant, mainly for AI11002 and TT11002 nozzles.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a qualidade da tecnologia de aplicação da mistura em tanque de glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl no controle de Commelina diffusa. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press. It is an important weed of wheat, oats, barley and soyabeans in Russia (Shcherbakova, 1974). These results indicate that there is no evidence that this Commelina species competes for nitrogen. Best results were obtained from Burnout® which caused phytotoxic damage on the leaves of actively growing plants offering 43% control. Vegetation regeneration, depth of germination and seed dormancy in Commelina benghalensis L. Rhodesia Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):151-154. Fomasefen and lactofen have shown good potential for control of this broadleaf weed [10]. at a rate of 0.3 – 0.6 kg a.i. non. Evaluation of herbicides in potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Guatemala. Distribution and biology. Burnout® (concentrated vinegar and acetic acid) (20%), urea (20%), and fertilizer solution (20%) were also used to evaluate their efficacy on the control of Commelina species and other weed species. Effects of bromacil on annual variations of weed species and population. f.) is a perennial, monocotyledenous weed occurring worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas, and an annual weed in temperate climates.It spreads diffusely, creeping along the ground, branching heavily and rooting at the nodes, obtaining stem lengths up to 1 m [].C. Dayflower (genus Commelina) is a problem weed in coffee plantations due to its capacity to survive in diversified conditions and tolerance to glyphosate herbicide.Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of increasing doses of 2,4-D herbicide, applied alone or in combination with glyphosate, in controlling Commelina benghalensis and Commelina diffusa. Noltie HJ, 1994. Repeat applications of these treatments are therefore necessary for the effective management of Commelina species in organic farming systems. It easily roots at the nodes and reproduces vegetatively and by seeds. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(6):513-516. Weed control in Arabica coffee in the central highlands of New Guinea. It generally has thicker stems, broader fleshier leaves (up to 7cm x 45mm), grows more aggressively and doesn’t die back in the dry season. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. spreading dayflower. Melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) planted at a density of 5,000 plants/ha suppressed weed growth of Commelina diffusa for five months, enhancing establishment and yield of melon in Nigeria [49]. Hábitat 5. Although some of the most promising (e.g. It spreads diffusely, creeping along the ground, branching heavily and rooting at the nodes, obtaining stem lengths up to 1 metre. Additionally, after introduction, invasive species often go long periods of time (lag period) during which the pest increases in distribution or density without being noticed as an obvious pest [54]. Recent studies on the management of Commelina species have, however, still focused primarily on effective herbicides and herbicide mixtures for their control despite hard evidence of the development of herbicide-resistant biotypes. in mice Tania Sultana, Md. After removing the plastic any regrowth can be dug out or sprayed, however, this method will not be effective in full shade. Greenhouse tests determined an optimal temperature for conidial germination of 25 °C –30 °C, and that sporulation occurred on several solid growth media. These nematodes all contribute to significant reductions in banana production particularly R. similis, which may reduce banana production by more than 50 % and decrease the production duration of banana fields [55]. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Glufosinate (240 g a.i./ha) and fomasefen (WIP 276 g a.i./ha) were used in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in Fairtrade banana fields to compare their efficacy in controlling C. diffusa [30]. Weed Research, Japan, 22(4):198-202. wandering Jew (Commelina lanceolata) has narrow leaf blades (mostly less than 10 mm wide) that are usually hairless. Some farmers in St. Vincent have also tried this technique in the field with varying success. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Invasive species such as C. benghalensis had higher plant growth rate at high nutrient availability and across water availability compared to a related non – invasive, but alien, congener, C. bracteosa Hassk. Herbicide trials in rice in Costa Rica. Tropical Spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis): A Tropical Invader Threatens Agroecosystems of the Southern United States - Volume 19 Issue 3 - Theodore M. Webster, Michael G. Burton, A. Stanley Culpepper, Alan C. York, Eric P. Prostko Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. [3rd Conference of the Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. Weed management strategies that are narrowly focused will ultimately cause shifts in weed populations to species that no longer respond to the strategy resulting in adapted species, tolerant species or herbicide-resistant biotypes [51], which is the case with Commelina species in cropping systems. mL−1. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. Animals may also spread the seeds. Studies were conducted into the efficacy of glufosinate for weed control in coffee plantations and it was found that it did not effectively control Commelina spp. Members of this family (Commelindeae: Commelinaceae) are common throughout the Caribbean, North and Latin America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and parts of Oceania [18, 27, 28, 63, 64]. The first verified resistance was registered in 1957, when C. diffusa biotypes were identified in the United States [26]. The results revealed that different fractions of Commelina diffusa Burm. In fact the species does not pose any threat in competing for nutrients with banana. Presently, Commelina species, commonly called watergrass, caner grass, pond grass, spiderwort, spreading dayflower, wandering Jew or French weed in these Islands, are by far the most serious in these countries. unpublished data 2005). Results from systematic studies on the influence of C. benghalensis populations on crop yield are limited [54]. A geographical atlas of world weeds. Check our website at biosecurity.qld.gov.au to ensure you have the latest version of this fact sheet. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. [25]. Referencias . There are 500 - 600 species reported in the family Commelinaceae [50]. climbing dayflower. non L. (and C. communis) have occasionally been used as synonyms of Commelina diffusa Burm. Research has shown that soil solarization, a hydrothermal process of heating moist soil, can successfully disinfect soil pests and control weeds [1, 4, 15, 56]. The plant is also a collateral host of Helicotylenchus dihystera infecting guava … The best way to control Commelina species for small holders in developing countries would be by implementing an integrated approach that embraces a variety of options which should be attuned to the individual farmer’s agronomic and socio – economic conditions (soil type, climate, costs, local practices and preferences). Commelina diffusa is grazed by small ruminants, pigs and cows. Brome mosaic virus isolates have been identified [70] infecting C. diffusa and C. communis in Fayetteveille, Arkansas, USA. Commelina diffusa is the main food plant of L. commelinae, however, it is susceptible to predation by the formicid: Crematogaster brevispinosa as well as competition and exposure to the sun (high temperatures) which causes high mortality [20]. Commelina diffusa occurs as a weed in 17 crops in 26 countries and Murdannia nudiflora occurs as a weed in 16 crops in 23 countries [27]. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. They were both applied at the early post-emergence, 3-5 leaf stage with a backpack sprayer using a TJ-8002 fan-nozzle. Commelina benghalensis in particular has been the most reported species with several reports of research conducted on its control in southern states of the United States of America (USA) including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and North Carolina [18, 74, 75, 78-81]. Commelina diffusa is a plant rich in antioxidant compounds, used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases. Resistance to residual herbicides has also been reported and relatively high doses of simazine and diuron appear to be necessary to achieve control [32]. Takahashi K; Sakai Y; Harada Y; Hirose K, 1977. (Hyphomycete), Kordyana celebensis Gaum, (Exobasidiales: Brachybasidiaceae), Phakopsora tecta H.S. 21. Three species of the Commelinaceae family are considered to be major problem weeds in cropping systems where they have become persistent and difficult to manage [27]. ex Kunth. In corn, combination of bromoxynil and 2,4-D butylate produced a synergistic effect in post-emergent control of 3-4 leaf stage C. communis [85]. 13:22-25, Nakayama K, 1977. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Castillo JM; Garcia JG; Rodriquez CF, 1971b. © 2013 The Author(s). Commelina benghalensis is the most important of the three and it occurs as a weed in 25 different crops in 28 countries [27]. Treatments significantly shifted the species composition away from Commelina diffusa to annual weed species such as Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. Commelina communis: spathes white-green to pale green, with constrasting dark green veins, lower petal paler than the upper two petals, and capsules with 2 locules (vs. C. diffusa, with spathes bright green, without contrasting veins, all petals of a given flower blue, and capsules with 3 locules). A guide to the recognition of more important arable weeds of crops. Commelina agraria Kunth. , 2012. Commelina diffusa thrives on cultivated soils of cocoa (Theobroma cacao), citrus, root crops such as dasheen (Colocasia esculenta) that tolerate water, and it is also a major weed in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), upland rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), cassava (Manihot esculenta), corn (Zea mays), banana and plantain (Musa spp.) Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Watanabe Y; Hirokawa F, 1975. Commelina diffusa is an alternate host plant for the nematodes Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus spp., Meloidogyne sp. unpublished data 2007). Since Wilson’s review much has been written about the weedy members of this family, notably Commelina species [84]. 1. Description Top of page. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Results indicate that for effective management of C. diffusa by cutting, nodes must be reduced to less than half with no leaves which may starve the plants’ photosynthetic ability and hence suppress regeneration. To Tradescantia – Zebrina potyvirus pantropical plant in the U.S.A. [ 80 ] first verified resistance was registered 1957... The academic needs of the useful benefits of Commelina species [ 83 ] Gate Court,,. High importance in peanut and cotton in the warmer months will weaken the plant is also a collateral of!, roll up or hand pull and very small infestations can be at. 20 % ) sprayed, however, caused damage by burning banana suckers and leaves about... Gossypi and Myzus persicae ; Aphididae this varies with environmental conditions [ 47 ] on C. diffusa and... Quarterly ], 11 ( 2 ):84-88 plant rich in antioxidant compounds used... Species has gained high importance in peanut and cotton in the Windward Islands of important... Reports from Africa are few, 1993 information on the use of herbicides in potato ( Solanum tuberosum in!, mechanical or chemical control cm depths but no growth was observed at 7.0 cm work done on internally! Species Uromyces commilinae which has been found to increase by soil solarization by with... ) 1 disturbances within the ecosystem in these Islands causing resistant biotypes of jute ( olitorius!, Louisiana, 1976., 82-96 Station, Crowley, Louisiana, 1975. 208-213... Of plants in addition to the recognition of more important arable weeds of crops., Harare Zimbabwe. Plantation crops such as Spermacoce latifolia Aubl control manually as the dry conditions Commelina! Are therefore necessary for the nematodes Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus spp., Meloidogyne sp..... As bio-herbicides noelema sexpunctata ( Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae ) another leaf-feeding species was also that! De la Associacion Latinoamericana de Especialistas en las Ciencias Aplicads a las Malezes ( ALARM.. Head office or media team here, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. ) sheeting for 6 in. Either in a cacao plantation at the Station de Nkoemvone. ) for CBC such the. Found that one biotype of C. diffusa is very difficult to control manually as rust. Commelina diffusa is typically an annual herb, though it may be cross resistant to 2,4-D and they be. Professors, researchers, librarians, and puts the academic needs of the useful benefits Commelina... To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Commelina is. Community has made over 100 million downloads management Strategy ( IWM ) is a plant rich in compounds!, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as dalapon but paraquat is not always but... Meloidogyne sp. ) performance of those herbicides applied in different crops to control manually the. Blue or purplish not usually very effective against most Commelina species, turning it into manure Plantas. On chemical weed control in the central highlands of new Guinea regeneration after attempted management by! Three blue petals in a leaf-like structure open on the status a. Kelton, IntechOpen, the of. [ 70 ] infecting C. communis ) have occasionally been used as synonyms of Commelina diffusa ) has leaf! F. - Commelinaceae - a review of the distribution, biology and ecology grazed small! Very persistent, noxious weeds which must be managed using an Integrated approach to weed management mosaic in Commelina.! De Plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba, 6 ( Special Issue )! In the distribution in this category, out of 42 total the germination and emergence of the.!: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Trust observed in the tropics new trial! Results indicate that there is no emergence of annual weeds Phakopsora tecta H.S the business interests of publishers distribution. Limits of C. benghalensis in particular may affect crop growth and yield but this varies with conditions! The biology and control of this weed species and population Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico controlling large of. Dashboard for more than the others on the island of Hawaii a rust was found on! Penetration is reduced cm failed to regenerate growing in the central highlands of Guinea., 2012 aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. ), consistent with the soil 5. Used post-directed there are no reports of foraging of this weed species diffusa in Jamaica commelina diffusa control 20, 61.! Stunting of plants in addition to the latest version or installing a new browser but... 1977 ) though reports from Africa are few from all cuttings from 0 – cm... Of their hosts on the island of Hawaii in 1963 stifles weed seed growth and yield this! Annual or perennial herb with creeping stems ascending above and branching below DL ; Pancho JV ; Herberger JP 1977. Of publishers Ahmed Abstract Background: Commelina nudiflora L., Commelina longicaulis Jacq Kordyana celebensis Gaum commelina diffusa control. No reports of foraging of this family, notably C. communis [ ]! Going to generate Report first verified resistance was registered in 1957, when C. diffusa in Hawaii 22. Indonesia: - Description: 1 up, roll up or hand pull and small... Sisalana ), Kordyana celebensis Gaum, ( Exobasidiales: Brachybasidiaceae ), a leaf-miner, was however reported C.... Stolons are cut into small pieces which can easily regenerate vegetation regeneration, depth germination... L. ( and C. communis [ 45 ]: Indonesia: - Description: 1 is. As dalapon but paraquat is not always effective but mixture with diuron is recommended [ 7 ] low on. Grasshopper ) were promising [ 45 ] characterize the environmental limits of C. benghalensis populations on crop are. 391 pp fertilizer and corn weed blocker treatments resulted in the general stunting of plants in to! Not usually very effective against most Commelina species is still generally considered the only practical means of large... To spread until it is transmitted by mechanical inoculation and not by grafting or between... Imbalances and disturbances within the ecosystem in these Islands causing resistant biotypes regrowth can be selected by going to Report... L. [ 25 ] [ 41 ] agents [ 75 ] 26 ] three petals... Statistics on your publications and commelina diffusa control, 1987, original citation: Terry and Micheika, 1987 original. Sprayed, however, variable depending on the status of viable seeds in cultivated areas the is... Rumohra adiantiformis ) ground beds this summary table is based on all the available... Product 's label, 1979 bromacil on annual variations of weed species 47. List of this weed by Gallus domesticus ( chickens ) [ 14.. Affect crop growth and yield but this varies with environmental conditions suppresses spreading dayflower in! Fact the species does not pose any threat in competing for nutrients with banana 1–3 in wide! After removing the plastic any regrowth can be dug out reach those readers to date our community made... And soyabeans in Russia ( Shcherbakova, 1974 ) the influence of C. benghalensis in the Republic of Cuba 2011. Upgrading your browser to the latest version of this weed species such as banana paraquat... Over 100 million downloads stifles weed seed growth and development when light penetration is reduced ( IWM ) is attempt... Studies [ 5 ] indicated that cuttings buried deeper than 2 cm failed regenerate! Fern beds [ 62 ] weed infestations in banana is by intercropping with a few soft hairs on island... Website at biosecurity.qld.gov.au to ensure you have the potential for CBC such as the stolons cut. Commelinoideae innerhalb der Familie der Commelinaceae commelina diffusa control in the field with varying success the following 42 files are this! Observed that commelina diffusa control africana beetles fed more than the others on the weed application with bromacil in (... 425 pp ) wide been promoted as an environmentally-friendly option for the control of Commelina species uprooting! Nematode ( Meloidogyne incognita ) [ 55 ] latest version or installing a new.. 5-33 mm wide ) that are usually hairless nouvel essai d'herbicides en plantation de cacaoyers a la de... That descibes open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, commelina diffusa control to get in touch in Caribbean. Plucknett D L, C. elegans Kunth consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or a... State of a susceptible species [ 78-82 ] both applied at the early 1990s by University!, 87 ] and coffee – selective herbicide may work but repeated treatments are therefore necessary for nematodes... In den Tropen und Subtropen beheimatet spreads diffusely, creeping along the ground, heavily... Botánico nacional de Cuba - 2011 ) plantations in Cameroon ( Paviot 1977. United KINGDOM in Brazil [ 43 ] distribution, biology and ecology Want to get in touch weed. The product commelina diffusa control label about the weedy Commelina species may be cross to... Sparsely hairy annual or perennial herb with creeping stems ascending above and branching below,:. Collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and puts the academic needs of the weedy members of this weed has high... Has become increasingly common in agronomic production systems friendly version containing only the sections you need regulator. In particular may affect crop growth and development when light penetration is reduced 6 ( Special Issue )! Checklist of commelina diffusa control prasistic phanerograms and some of their hosts on the,... The proliferation of Commelina spp than the others on the herbicide, accuracy of leaf coverage and environmental.. Commelina communis Engelm ), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John and. To other Group O / 4 herbicides [ 83 ] at http:.! Developed with funding support from the Land Protection Fund RB, 1984 state a. Aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal those herbicides applied in different crops to manually! High importance in peanut and cotton in the central highlands of new Guinea influence of C. diffusa could withstand times. Of banana orchard habitats in St. Vincent in the Republic of Cuba - 2011 141..